Chemistry Syllabus

Course Structure

IBasic Concepts of Chemistry11
IIStructure of Atom
IIIClassification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties4
IVChemical Bonding and Molecular Structure21
VStates of Matter: Gases and Liquids
VIIIRedox Reactions16
Xs-Block Elements
XISome p-Block Elements
XIIOrganic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques18
XIVEnvironmental Chemistry

Course Syllabus

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

  • General Introduction −
    • Importance of Chemistry
    • Scope of chemistry
  • Nature of matter
  • Laws of chemical combination
  • Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Concept of −
    • Elements
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
  • Atomic and molecular masses −
    • Mole concept
    • Molar mass
    • Percentage composition
    • Empirical and molecular formula
    • Chemical reactions
    • Stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry

Unit II: Structure of Atom

  • Discovery of −
    • Electron
    • Proton
    • Neutron
    • Atomic number
    • Isotopes
    • Isobars
  • Models −
    • Thomson’s model and its limitations
    • Rutherford’s model and its limitations
    • Bohr’s model and its limitations
  • Concept of shells and subshells
  • Dual nature of matter and light
  • de Broglie’s relationship
  • Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • Concept of orbitals
  • Quantum numbers
  • Shapes of s, p and d orbitals
  • Rules for filling electrons in orbitals −
    • Aufbau principle
    • Pauli’s exclusion principle
    • Hund’s rule
    • Electronic configuration of atoms
    • Stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

  • Significance of classification
  • Brief history of the development of periodic table
  • Modern periodic law
  • Present form of periodic table
  • Periodic trends in properties of elements −
    • Atomic radii
    • Ionic radii
    • Inert gas radii
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Electron gain enthalpy
    • Electronegativity
    • Valency
  • Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

  • Valence electrons
  • Ionic bond
  • Covalent bond
  • Bond boundaries
  • Lewis structure
  • Polar character of covalent bond
  • Covalent character of ionic bond
  • Valence bond hypothesis
  • Reverberation
  • Math of covalent atoms
  • VSEPR hypothesis
  • Idea of hybridization
  • Including s, p and d orbitals
  • States of some straightforward particles
  • Atomic orbital hypothesis of homonuclear diatomic particles (subjective thought as it were)
  • Hydrogen bond

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

  • Three conditions of issue
  • Intermolecular communications
  • Sorts of holding
  • Dissolving and limits
  • Part of gas laws in explaining the idea of the atom
  • Boyle’s law
  • Charles law
  • Gay-Lussac’s law
  • Avogadro’s law
  • Ideal conduct
  • Exact inference of gas condition
  • Avogadro’s number
  • Ideal gas condition
  • Deviation from ideal conduct
  • Liquefaction of gases
  • Basic temperature
  • Motor energy and atomic velocities (rudimentary thought)
  • Fluid state
  • Fume pressure
  • Thickness
  • Surface pressure

Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

  • System
    • Concept
    • Types
    • Surroundings
    • Work
    • Heat
    • Energy
    • Extensive
    • Intensive properties
    • State functions
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Internal energy and enthalpy
  • Heat capacity and specific heat
  • Measurement of δU and δH
  • Hess’s law of constant heat summation
  • Enthalpy of bond dissociation
  • Combustion
  • Formation
  • Atomization
  • Sublimation
  • Phase transition
  • Ionization
  • Solution
  • Dilution
  • Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
  • Introduction of entropy as a state function
  • Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes
  • Criteria for Equilibrium
  • Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction)

Unit VII: Equilibrium

  • Balance in physical and compound cycles
  • Dynamic nature of balance
  • Law of mass activity
  • Balance consistent
  • Variables influencing balance
  • Le chatelier’s standard
  • Ionic balance ionization of acids and bases
  • Solid and feeble electrolytes
  • Level of ionization
  • Ionization of poly essential acids
  • Corrosive strength
  • Idea of pH
  • Henderson condition
  • Hydrolysis of salts (rudimentary thought)
  • Cushion arrangement
  • Dissolvability item
  • Normal particle impact (with illustrative models)

Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

  • Idea of oxidation and decrease
  • Redox responses
  • Oxidation number
  • Adjusting redox responses
  • Regarding misfortune and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number
  • Utilizations of redox responses

Unit IX: Hydrogen

  • Position of hydrogen in intermittent table
  • Event
  • Isotopes
  • Arrangement
  • Properties and employments of hydrogen
  • Hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial
  • Physical and synthetic properties of water
  • Substantial water
  • Hydrogen peroxide – arrangement, responses and structure and use
  • Hydrogen as a fuel

Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 & Group 2 Elements

  • General introduction
  • Electronic configuration
  • Occurrence
  • Anomalous properties of the first element of each group
  • Diagonal relationship
  • Trends in the variation of properties – such as −
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Atomic and ionic radii
  • Trends in chemical reactivity with −
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Hydrogen
    • Halogens
  • Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds −
    • Sodium Carbonate
    • Sodium Chloride
    • Sodium Hydroxide
    • Sodium Hydrogen carbonate
  • Biological importance of −
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
  • Industrial uses of −
    • Calcium Oxide
    • Calcium Carbonate

Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p – Block Elements

  • Group 13 Elements −
    • General introduction
    • Electronic configuration
    • Occurrence
    • Variation of properties
    • Oxidation states
    • Trends in chemical reactivity
    • Anomalous properties of first element of the group
    • Boron – physical and chemical properties
    • Some important compounds Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminum
    • Reactions with acids and alkalis
  • Group 14 Elements −
    • General introduction
    • Electronic configuration
    • Occurrence
    • Variation of properties
    • Oxidation states
    • Trends in chemical reactivity
    • Anomalous behaviour of first elements
    • Carbon-catenation
    • Allotropic forms
    • Physical and chemical properties
    • Uses of some important compounds: oxides
    • Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses
    • Uses of Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry

  • Some Basic Principles and Technique
  • General presentation
  • Strategies for cleansing
  • Subjective and quantitative investigation
  • Order and IUPAC terminology of natural mixes
  • Electronic relocations in a covalent bond
  • Inductive impact
  • Electromeric impact
  • Reverberation and hyper formation
  • Homolytic and heterolytic splitting of a covalent bond
  • Free revolutionaries
  • Carbocations
  • Carbanions
  • Electrophiles
  • Nucleophile
  • Kinds of natural responses

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons – Classification

  • Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkanes
    • Nomenclature
    • Isomerism
    • Conformation (ethane only)
    • Physical properties
    • Chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation
    • Combustion
    • Pyrolysis
  • Alkenes
    • Nomenclature
    • Structure of double bond (ethene)
    • Geometrical isomerism
    • Physical properties
    • Methods of preparation
    • Chemical reactions
    • Addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect)
    • Ozonolysis
    • Oxidation
    • Mechanism of electrophilic addition
  • Alkynes
    • Nomenclature
    • Structure of triple bond (ethyne)
    • Physical properties
    • Methods of preparation
    • Chemical reactions
    • Acidic character of alkynes
    • Addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • Introduction
    • IUPAC nomenclature
    • Benzene
    • Resonance
    • Aromaticity
    • Chemical properties
    • Mechanism of electrophilic substitution
    • Nitration
    • Sulphonation
    • Halogenation
    • Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation
    • directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene
    • Carcinogenicity and toxicity

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution −
    • Air
    • Water
    • Soil pollution
  • Chemical reactions in atmosphere
  • Smog
  • Major atmospheric pollutants
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone and its reactions
  • Effects of depletion of ozone layer
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Pollution due to industrial wastes
  • Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution
  • Strategies for control of environmental pollution

Practical Syllabus

Course Structure

IVolumetric Analysis8
IISalt Analysis8
IIIContent Based Experiment6
IVProject Work4
VClass record and viva4

Practical Syllabus

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

  • Cutting glass tube and glass rod
  • Bending a glass tube
  • Drawing out a glass jet
  • Boring a cork

B. Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances

  • Determination of melting point of an organic compound.
  • Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.
  • Crystallization of impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, Copper Sulphate, Benzoic Acid.

C. Experiments based on pH

(a) Any one of the following experiments −

  • Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solution of known and varied
  • concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
  • Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
  • Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.

(b) Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical Equilibrium

One of the following experiments −

  • Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either of the ions.
  • Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative Estimation

  • Using a chemical balance
  • Preparation of standard solution of Oxalic acid
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Sodium Hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of Oxalic acid
  • Preparation of standard solution of Sodium Carbonate
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard Sodium Carbonate solution

F. Qualitative Analysis

  • Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt

    Cations − Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+A13+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,

    Anions − C32-, S2-, S32-, NO3, Cl, Br, I, PO3+, C2O42-, CH3 COO

    (Note − Insoluble salts excluded)

  • Detection of -Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine in organic compounds.


Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A few suggested Projects −

  • Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
  • Study of the methods of purification of water.
  • Testing the hardness, presence of Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, etc., depending upon the regional variation
  • in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
  • Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of Sodium Carbonate on it.
  • Study the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.
  • Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
  • Study the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
  • Study of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices

Note − Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.