chemistry-syllabus

Chemistry Syllabus

Course Structure

UnitsTopicsMarks
IBasic Concepts of Chemistry11
IIStructure of Atom
IIIClassification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties4
IVChemical Bonding and Molecular Structure21
VStates of Matter: Gases and Liquids
VIThermodynamics
VIIEquilibrium
VIIIRedox Reactions16
IXHydrogen
Xs-Block Elements
XISome p-Block Elements
XIIOrganic Chemistry: Basic Principles & Techniques18
XIIIHydrocarbons
XIVEnvironmental Chemistry
Total70

Course Syllabus

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

  • General Introduction −
    • Importance of Chemistry
    • Scope of chemistry
  • Nature of matter
  • Laws of chemical combination
  • Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Concept of −
    • Elements
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
  • Atomic and molecular masses −
    • Mole concept
    • Molar mass
    • Percentage composition
    • Empirical and molecular formula
    • Chemical reactions
    • Stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry

Unit II: Structure of Atom

  • Discovery of −
    • Electron
    • Proton
    • Neutron
    • Atomic number
    • Isotopes
    • Isobars
  • Models −
    • Thomson’s model and its limitations
    • Rutherford’s model and its limitations
    • Bohr’s model and its limitations
  • Concept of shells and subshells
  • Dual nature of matter and light
  • de Broglie’s relationship
  • Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • Concept of orbitals
  • Quantum numbers
  • Shapes of s, p and d orbitals
  • Rules for filling electrons in orbitals −
    • Aufbau principle
    • Pauli’s exclusion principle
    • Hund’s rule
    • Electronic configuration of atoms
    • Stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

  • Significance of classification
  • Brief history of the development of periodic table
  • Modern periodic law
  • Present form of periodic table
  • Periodic trends in properties of elements −
    • Atomic radii
    • Ionic radii
    • Inert gas radii
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Electron gain enthalpy
    • Electronegativity
    • Valency
  • Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

  • Valence electrons
  • Ionic bond
  • Covalent bond
  • Bond boundaries
  • Lewis structure
  • Polar character of covalent bond
  • Covalent character of ionic bond
  • Valence bond hypothesis
  • Reverberation
  • Math of covalent atoms
  • VSEPR hypothesis
  • Idea of hybridization
  • Including s, p and d orbitals
  • States of some straightforward particles
  • Atomic orbital hypothesis of homonuclear diatomic particles (subjective thought as it were)
  • Hydrogen bond

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

  • Three conditions of issue
  • Intermolecular communications
  • Sorts of holding
  • Dissolving and limits
  • Part of gas laws in explaining the idea of the atom
  • Boyle’s law
  • Charles law
  • Gay-Lussac’s law
  • Avogadro’s law
  • Ideal conduct
  • Exact inference of gas condition
  • Avogadro’s number
  • Ideal gas condition
  • Deviation from ideal conduct
  • Liquefaction of gases
  • Basic temperature
  • Motor energy and atomic velocities (rudimentary thought)
  • Fluid state
  • Fume pressure
  • Thickness
  • Surface pressure

Unit VI: Chemical Thermodynamics

  • System
    • Concept
    • Types
    • Surroundings
    • Work
    • Heat
    • Energy
    • Extensive
    • Intensive properties
    • State functions
  • First law of thermodynamics
  • Internal energy and enthalpy
  • Heat capacity and specific heat
  • Measurement of δU and δH
  • Hess’s law of constant heat summation
  • Enthalpy of bond dissociation
  • Combustion
  • Formation
  • Atomization
  • Sublimation
  • Phase transition
  • Ionization
  • Solution
  • Dilution
  • Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
  • Introduction of entropy as a state function
  • Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes
  • Criteria for Equilibrium
  • Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction)

Unit VII: Equilibrium

  • Balance in physical and compound cycles
  • Dynamic nature of balance
  • Law of mass activity
  • Balance consistent
  • Variables influencing balance
  • Le chatelier’s standard
  • Ionic balance ionization of acids and bases
  • Solid and feeble electrolytes
  • Level of ionization
  • Ionization of poly essential acids
  • Corrosive strength
  • Idea of pH
  • Henderson condition
  • Hydrolysis of salts (rudimentary thought)
  • Cushion arrangement
  • Dissolvability item
  • Normal particle impact (with illustrative models)

Unit VIII: Redox Reaction

  • Idea of oxidation and decrease
  • Redox responses
  • Oxidation number
  • Adjusting redox responses
  • Regarding misfortune and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number
  • Utilizations of redox responses

Unit IX: Hydrogen

  • Position of hydrogen in intermittent table
  • Event
  • Isotopes
  • Arrangement
  • Properties and employments of hydrogen
  • Hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial
  • Physical and synthetic properties of water
  • Substantial water
  • Hydrogen peroxide – arrangement, responses and structure and use
  • Hydrogen as a fuel

Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 & Group 2 Elements

  • General introduction
  • Electronic configuration
  • Occurrence
  • Anomalous properties of the first element of each group
  • Diagonal relationship
  • Trends in the variation of properties – such as −
    • Ionization enthalpy
    • Atomic and ionic radii
  • Trends in chemical reactivity with −
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Hydrogen
    • Halogens
  • Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds −
    • Sodium Carbonate
    • Sodium Chloride
    • Sodium Hydroxide
    • Sodium Hydrogen carbonate
  • Biological importance of −
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
  • Industrial uses of −
    • Calcium Oxide
    • Calcium Carbonate

Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p – Block Elements

  • Group 13 Elements −
    • General introduction
    • Electronic configuration
    • Occurrence
    • Variation of properties
    • Oxidation states
    • Trends in chemical reactivity
    • Anomalous properties of first element of the group
    • Boron – physical and chemical properties
    • Some important compounds Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminum
    • Reactions with acids and alkalis
  • Group 14 Elements −
    • General introduction
    • Electronic configuration
    • Occurrence
    • Variation of properties
    • Oxidation states
    • Trends in chemical reactivity
    • Anomalous behaviour of first elements
    • Carbon-catenation
    • Allotropic forms
    • Physical and chemical properties
    • Uses of some important compounds: oxides
    • Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses
    • Uses of Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry

  • Some Basic Principles and Technique
  • General presentation
  • Strategies for cleansing
  • Subjective and quantitative investigation
  • Order and IUPAC terminology of natural mixes
  • Electronic relocations in a covalent bond
  • Inductive impact
  • Electromeric impact
  • Reverberation and hyper formation
  • Homolytic and heterolytic splitting of a covalent bond
  • Free revolutionaries
  • Carbocations
  • Carbanions
  • Electrophiles
  • Nucleophile
  • Kinds of natural responses

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons – Classification

  • Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkanes
    • Nomenclature
    • Isomerism
    • Conformation (ethane only)
    • Physical properties
    • Chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation
    • Combustion
    • Pyrolysis
  • Alkenes
    • Nomenclature
    • Structure of double bond (ethene)
    • Geometrical isomerism
    • Physical properties
    • Methods of preparation
    • Chemical reactions
    • Addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect)
    • Ozonolysis
    • Oxidation
    • Mechanism of electrophilic addition
  • Alkynes
    • Nomenclature
    • Structure of triple bond (ethyne)
    • Physical properties
    • Methods of preparation
    • Chemical reactions
    • Acidic character of alkynes
    • Addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • Introduction
    • IUPAC nomenclature
    • Benzene
    • Resonance
    • Aromaticity
    • Chemical properties
    • Mechanism of electrophilic substitution
    • Nitration
    • Sulphonation
    • Halogenation
    • Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation
    • directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene
    • Carcinogenicity and toxicity

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution −
    • Air
    • Water
    • Soil pollution
  • Chemical reactions in atmosphere
  • Smog
  • Major atmospheric pollutants
  • Acid rain
  • Ozone and its reactions
  • Effects of depletion of ozone layer
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Pollution due to industrial wastes
  • Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution
  • Strategies for control of environmental pollution

Practical Syllabus

Course Structure

UnitsTopicsMarks
IVolumetric Analysis8
IISalt Analysis8
IIIContent Based Experiment6
IVProject Work4
VClass record and viva4
Total30

Practical Syllabus

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

  • Cutting glass tube and glass rod
  • Bending a glass tube
  • Drawing out a glass jet
  • Boring a cork

B. Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances

  • Determination of melting point of an organic compound.
  • Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.
  • Crystallization of impure sample of any one of the following: Alum, Copper Sulphate, Benzoic Acid.

C. Experiments based on pH

(a) Any one of the following experiments −

  • Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solution of known and varied
  • concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
  • Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
  • Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.

(b) Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical Equilibrium

One of the following experiments −

  • Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of either of the ions.
  • Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative Estimation

  • Using a chemical balance
  • Preparation of standard solution of Oxalic acid
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Sodium Hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of Oxalic acid
  • Preparation of standard solution of Sodium Carbonate
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of Hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard Sodium Carbonate solution

F. Qualitative Analysis

  • Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt

    Cations − Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+A13+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+,

    Anions − C32-, S2-, S32-, NO3, Cl, Br, I, PO3+, C2O42-, CH3 COO

    (Note − Insoluble salts excluded)

  • Detection of -Nitrogen, Sulphur, Chlorine in organic compounds.

PROJECT WORK

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A few suggested Projects −

  • Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
  • Study of the methods of purification of water.
  • Testing the hardness, presence of Iron, Fluoride, Chloride, etc., depending upon the regional variation
  • in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
  • Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of Sodium Carbonate on it.
  • Study the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.
  • Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
  • Study the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
  • Study of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices

Note − Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.